|Methods for Teaching Additional Language Learners (ALL)|
Thinking out loud
Series Method, The Direct Method, The 'Audiolingual' Method (ALM)
Early methods that focused on L2 conversation continue to be rooted in basic survival as well as beginning language learning fundamentals. I consider the developmental aspect of learning L1 and believe elements of this approach for learning an additional language have a role based on specific contexts. I recall what I perceived as being faced with adversity, stranded in a Montreal train station with a one year old, a suitcase and a French-English dictionary over forty years ago on my way to see family in Halifax. I scrambled to find where to board the train that was expected to leave the station in less than 5 minutes. It was then that I relied on characteristics of Series and Direct Methods to solve my problem. I hastily searched for basic words from my French/English dictionary--"gate" and "train" asking an attendant to help me find my train. This method was instrumental in ensuring I boarded my train waiting across one set of tracks, on time. During the mid 20th century, a greater focus on thinking as language and conversing in a second language was at the forefront of SLA, moving forward from simply reading and writing languages as in classical methods.
The Series Method, though short-lived manifested due to a failed experiment. Gouin, the father of the Series Method memorized entire books of German during the late 1800s. Isolation proved unsuccessful. Without interaction, he was unable to understand the language in conversation. This defeat led to a new discovery. By observing children and their first language acquisition, he modeled a new naturalist approach to SLA known as the Series Method. Around the same time in history, Berlitz made similar discoveries about naturalistic means for SLA with very little attention to studying the rules of grammar.
In his blog, The Language Nest, Jack Martin a linguist, demonstrates an effective use for the Series Method when teaching young children. Click on the button below for a look at modern usage.
The direct method
audiolingual method (ALM)
Example of Lesson Plan using the Audiolingual Method
Lesson Plan Lesson Plan
Concept / Topic to Teach:
The students develop their oral skills by repeating a series of short dialogues
Using short dialogues, the students will be able to:
1. Repeat the dialogues with a partner.
2. Transform questions into statements.
3. Complete a dialog using nouns, verbs or adjectives.
1. Short readings
2. Dialogues, questions or paragraphs
Anticipatory Set (Lead-In):
3. Roll call (attendance)
4. Introduce the activity by explaining and discussing the dialogue and its parts
The teacher will give out the dialogues. She will read the dialogue to the students. She will explain if necessary words of the dialogue they don’t understand. The students will read the dialogue to themselves and to the teacher. They will then pair up with another student to practice the dialogue. The will come to the front to practice the dialogue in front of the class. If some of them want they can say it without reading from the paper. The students can create their own dialogue by changing the names or things of the old one. The teacher will ask them a few questions in order to change questions to statements.
Plan for Independent Practice:
The students will fill out the dialogue using noun verbs or adjectives.
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
The students will share their dialogues to the rest of the class.